One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, currently 50, with the game lasting up to 9 hours. The Cricket World Cup, generally held every four years, is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called Limited Overs Internationals (LOI), although this generic term may also refer to Twenty20 International matches. They are major matches and considered the highest standard of List A, limited-overs competition.
The international one day game is a late-twentieth-century development. The first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, instead, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white-coloured kits with a red-coloured ball.
In the main the laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was generally 60 overs per side, and matches were also played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs.
Simply stated, the game works as follows:
- An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each.
- The Captain of the side winning the toss chooses to either bat or bowl (field) first.
- The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings. The innings lasts until the batting side is “all out” (i.e., 10 of the 11 batting players are “out”) or all of the first side’s allotted overs are completed.
- Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs (fewer in the case of rain-reduced matches and in any event generally no more than one fifth or 20% of the total overs per innings). Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers (either dedicated bowlers or all-rounders).
- The team batting second tries to score more than the target score in order to win the match. Similarly, the side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win.
- If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs, then the game is declared a tie (regardless of the number of wickets lost by either team).
- Fielding restrictions and powerplays
The bowling side is subjected to fielding restrictions during an ODI, in order to prevent teams from setting wholly defensive fields. Fielding restrictions dictate the maximum number of fielders allowed to be outside the thirty-yard circle.
Under current ODI rules, there are three levels of fielding restrictions:
- In the first 10 overs of an innings (the mandatory power play), the fielding team may have at most two fielders outside the 30-yard circle.
- Between 11 and 40 overs four fielders will be allowed to field outside the 30-yard circle.
- In the final 10 overs five fielders will be allowed to field outside the 30-yard circle.
- Fielding restrictions were first introduced in the Australian 1980–81 season.
- By 1992, only two fielders were allowed outside the circle in the first fifteen overs, then five fielders allowed outside the circle for the remaining overs.
- This was shortened to ten overs in 2005, and two five-over powerplays were introduced, with the bowling team having discretion over the timing for both.
- In 2008, the batting team was given discretion for the timing of one of the two powerplays.
- In 2011, the teams were restricted to completing the discretionary powerplays between the 16th and 40th overs; previously, the powerplays could take place at any time between the 11th and 50th overs.
- Finally, in 2012, the bowling powerplay was abandoned, and the number of fielders allowed outside the 30-yard circle during non-powerplay overs was reduced from five to four.
Teams with ODI status
The International Cricket Council (ICC) determines which teams have ODI status (meaning that any match played between two such teams under standard one-day rules is classified as an ODI).
- Permanent ODI status
The twelve Test-playing nations (which are also the twelve full members of the ICC) have permanent ODI status.
The nations are listed below with the date of each nation’s ODI debut after gaining full ODI status shown in brackets (Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Ireland, and Afghanistan were ICC associate members at the times of their ODI debuts):
- Australia (5 January 1971)
- England (5 January 1971)
- New Zealand (11 February 1973)
- Pakistan (11 February 1973)
- West Indies (5 September 1973)
- India (13 July 1974)
- Sri Lanka (13 February 1982)
- South Africa (10 November 1991)
- Zimbabwe (25 October 1992)
- Bangladesh (10 October 1997)
- Afghanistan (5 December 2017)
- Ireland (5 December 2017)
- Temporary ODI status
Between 2005 and 2017 the ICC granted temporary ODI status to six other teams (known as Associate members).
In 2017 this was changed to four teams, following the promotion of Afghanistan and Ireland to Test status (and permanent ODI status). The ICC had previously decided to limit ODI status to 16 teams. Teams earn this temporary status for a period of four years based on their performance in the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the ICC World Cricket League.
In 2019, ICC increased the number of teams holding Temporary ODI status to eight. The following eight teams currently have this status (the dates listed in brackets are of their first ODI match after gaining temporary ODI status):
• Scotland (from 27 June 2006, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• United Arab Emirates (from 1 February 2014, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• Nepal (from 1 August 2018, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• Netherlands (from 1 August 2018, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• Namibia (from 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• Oman (from 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• Papua New Guinea (from 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
• United States (from 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)
Additionally, eight teams have previously held this temporary ODI status before either being promoted to Test Status or relegated after under-performing at the World Cup Qualifier:
• Kenya (from 10 October 1997, until 30 January 2014)
• Canada (from 16 May 2006, until 28 January 2014)
• Bermuda (from 17 May 2006, until 8 April 2009)
• Ireland (from 13 June 2006, until 21 May 2017)
• Netherlands (from 4 July 2006, until 28 January 2014)
• Afghanistan (from 19 April 2009, until 14 June 2017)
• Hong Kong (from 1 May 2014, until 17 March 2018)
• Papua New Guinea (from 8 November 2014, until 17 March 2018)
The ICC occasionally granted associate members permanent ODI status without granting them full membership and Test status. This was originally introduced to allow the best associate members to gain regular experience in internationals before making the step up to full membership.
First Bangladesh and then Kenya received this status. Bangladesh have since made the step up to Test status and full membership; but as a result of disputes and poor performances, Kenya’s ODI status was reduced to temporary in 2005, meaning that it had to perform well at World Cup Qualifiers to keep ODI status. Kenya lost ODI status after finishing in fifth place at the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier event.
- Special ODI status
The ICC can also grant special ODI status to all matches within certain high-profile tournaments, with the result being that the following countries have also participated in full ODIs, with some later gaining temporary or permanent ODI status also fitting into this category:
• East Africa (1975 World Cup)
• Sri Lanka (1975 World Cup, 1979 World Cup)
• Canada (1979 World Cup, 2003 World Cup)
• Zimbabwe (1983 World Cup, 1987 World Cup, 1992 World Cup)
• Bangladesh (1986 Asia Cup, 1988 Asia Cup, 1990 Austral-Asia Cup, 1990 Asia Cup, 1995 Asia Cup, 1997 Asia Cup)
• United Arab Emirates (1994 Austral-Asia Cup, 1996 World Cup, 2004 Asia Cup and 2008 Asia Cup)
• Kenya (1996 World Cup, 1996 Sameer Cup)
• Netherlands (1996 World Cup, 2002 ICC Champions Trophy and 2003 World Cup)
• Scotland (1999 World Cup)
• Namibia (2003 World Cup)
• Hong Kong (2004 Asia Cup, 2008 Asia Cup and 2018 Asia Cup)
• United States (2004 ICC Champions Trophy)
Finally, since 2005, three composite teams have played matches with full ODI status. These matches were:
• The World Cricket Tsunami Appeal, a once-off match between the Asian Cricket Council XI vs ICC World XI in the 2004/05 season.
• The Afro-Asia Cup, two three-ODI series played in 2005 and 2007 Afro-Asia Cup between the Asian Cricket Council XI and the African XI.
• The ICC Super Series, a three-ODI series played between the ICC World XI and the then-top-ranked Australian cricket team in the 2005/06 season.
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